Apollo 11 – That’s Old News


In July 1969, 3 men are set out on a mission, by President Kennedy in 1961, to step foot on the moon and return back to Earth. Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins traveled into outer space and came back in the spacecraft, Columbia. Altogether, there were 3 spacecraft that traveled to the moon on the Apollo 11 journey: Columbia, Eagle, and the Service Module.


Description of event: In the year of 1969, Apollo 11 had a mission to land two men on the moon. It was important for America to accomplish this goal before the Soviet. Armstrong and Aldrin were the first two astronauts to step foot on the moon. Michael Collins served as the communicator and photographer for this mission.


Coverage of event then vs. now: About 530 million people were watching the event. At the time of this mission, there were multiple different news outlets to keep the public updated. Apollo 11 was covered on television, on the newspaper, and on the radio. CBS is one news outlet that covered the event. They had a countdown for the time that the men would be landing on the moon as well as the how far they were distance-wise in outer space. During this coverage, news anchors were not shown until the landing, it was strictly focused on the spacecraft and Michael Collins keeping the world updated. Hundreds of people followed this event on television to keep updated on the mission. In The New York Times, many adjectives were used to cover this event, and it was read in a story-telling manner. My step-father told me that he remembered listening to the radio as well as watching the whole entire mission on television whenever he was 14 years old. He remembered that the take off, landing, and whole entire trip to the moon was live on the radio.


If this event were to be covered now, the whole entire process would still be filmed on live television. There would more than likely be side by side videos, one of the aircraft process and the other of a news anchor or Americans watching the process or talking about it. Along from that, there would be constant social media updates on Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram, some radio updates, and newspaper updates. In the newspaper today, the mission of the “man on the moon” would not have been told in a story-telling tone. It would be straight to the facts with direct quotes.




Photo Credit: Washington Post

Front Page Image

Photo Credit: New York Times

What was good or bad about the coverage: I thought that this event was covered really well on the television because it was literally current and viewers had the capability to follow each step of the Apollo 11 moon landing. Newspapers seemed to explicitly cover the event as well, adding every detail possible, as well as present large photographs with cutlines.







William Laurence

Image result for william laurence
Photo credit: Wikipedia 

Biography: William L Laurence is credited for his science journalism writing between the 1940s-1950s. Laurence was born on March 7, 1888 and died on March 19, 1977. Although he was an American journalist, he was born as a Jewish Lithuanian. He did not come to America until 1905 after the Russian Revolution. He received an education from Harvard Law School, Boston University, and the University of Besancon (located in France).  After becoming a United States citizen he served in the army Signal Corps during World War I. His first journalism career started in 1926 with The World and then in 1930, working for The New York Times. He worked for the New York Times  for 43 years. His specialty was reporting scientific matters. A year after working for The New York Times. He married Florence Davidow. Him and his wife did not have children.  He died from a brain blood clot.

William’s World: 

 In the beginning of the 1940s, World War II is starting taking place. Germany is invading different countries. In America, there is still a high unemployment rate, but production and prices rise for crops. Freeways, turnpikes, and roadside ads emerge. In 1941 Roosevelt starts his third term as president. General U.S. Leslie Groves is supervising the Manhattan Project, which was a project with the goal of building an atomic bomb before Germany or Japan. During this project, the first self-supported nuclear atomic bomb was created at the University of Chicago. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor in 1941, which leads to Roosevelt declaring war against Japan. Women begin to start working in place of men. Rosie the Riveter becomes an iconic name for women working in the factories during World War II. Roosevelt is elected for his fourth term and passes the GI Bill of Rights, giving benefits to those that served in the military. In 1945, Germany surrenders and Hitler kills himself. Roosevelt passes away and Truman takes place as the President. World War II finally ended in the year of 1945. Truman does away with racial segregation within the military. An all-African American aviation is created at the Tuskegee Institute of Alabama. After the war, in the year of 1950, the baby boomers began to be born. There are now over a million televisions in America. The 22nd Amendment is passed in 1951. Eisenhower, a Republican, was elected as President. In 1953, smoking cigarette was reported to cause health problems, more specifically, lung cancer. Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat on a bus and Martin Luther King Jr. leads boycotts, starting a civil rights movement. The Sputnik Satellite has been developed by the Soviet Union.


Electronics/Fun Facts: In New York City, CBS develops the first color television. WNBT, also from New York City, is the first television station in the United States, reaching nearly 10,000 viewers. The Grapes of Wrath is recently written and becomes an extremely popular book. Walt Disney releases a few different movies, including Pinocchio. Jukeboxes are now being created. The Ed Sullivan Show is now featured on television. Bebop music is beginning to become a huge hit. Sony creates a transistor radio. Elvis Presley starts his music career with the song, “Heartbreak Hotel.”

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Photo Credit: Atomic Heritage Foundation

William’s Contribution:

William Laurence was employed to the New York Times and the United States government. Laurence was able to write scientifically in the newspaper, but he wrote in a manner that was easy for the public to understand. Following the devisation of Pear Harbor, Laurence was aware that most scientist began to avoid him. This gave him suspicion that the making of a top secret atomic bomb was being produced, which was true. The United States Office of Censorship asked that Laurence stop writing about this suspicion.  Shortly after this, General Leslie Groves hand-selected Laurence to write and work with the atomic bomb for the Manhattan project. The U.S. War Department gave him access, as a reporter, to write articles about the atomic-bomb that was being created. He contributed to the Manhattan project by sending out press releases, through interviews, and keeping the public notified of the creation of the atomic bomb. He was the only journalist that was allowed to observe historical nuclear bomb at Almagordo. He had the privilege to even interview the team that raided Hiroshima. As well as being the only journalist that got to observe this creation, he was also the only journalist that had the privilege to fly on the atomic bomb mission over Japan. He worked as not only a reporter, but also could work as an insider with the building of the bomb. He was awarded with the Pulitzer Prize 2 times in his life and had 2 honorary doctrines. Laurence and David Deitz established the National Association of Science Writers. He received the Pulitzer Prize for Reporting with four others in his science reporting field. He received his second Pulitzer Prize for his contributions with the atomic bomb. He was eventually the science editor for the newspaper company that he worked for. He was given a special dinner to honor his scientific work, which was sponsored by different societies and science associations. In his lifetime, he wrote four books: Dawn Over Zero, We are Not Helpless, The Hell Bomb, and Men and Atoms.

 Image result for william laurence atomic bombPhoto Credit: Wikipedia 
(Photo Credit: undark.org) — Laurence on the left, Groves on the right. Groves was in charge of the Manhattan Project and selected Laurence to work with the project.


Photo Credit: undark.org — Cover of Dawn Over Zero. This is the story of the atomic bomb.


William’s Quirks:

His nickname was Atomic Bill and also enjoyed being called Mr. Laurence. On Sunday’s, in the newspaper, he wrote his columns on scientific findings that he thought would be beneficial to his readers. He wrote his own obituary before he witnessed the Trinity test. Laurence wrote a radio draft address to President Truman following the dropping of the atomic bomb in Japan. All copies of the draft were destroyed besides one because General Leslie Groves was not in favor of the speech. Whenever Laurence died he did not leave behind any journals or diaries like most journalist would have.


Link to Draft: http://www.atomicheritage.org/resource/william-laurences-draft-president-trumans-speech-after-bombing-hiroshima



Links for More Information:











Keever, Beverly. “Top Secret: Censoring the First Rough Drafts of Atomic Bomb History.” Media History Vol. 14 No. 2 (2008): 185-204. Routledge. 24 Oct. 2017.

Sinkim, John. “William Laurence.” Sparticus Educational (2014). Web. 24 Oct. 2017.

“William L. Laurence.” Atomic Heritage Foundation, 7 Mar. 1888. Web. 24 Oct. 2017.

“William L Laurence.” Wikipedia (2017)Web. 23 Oct. 2017.

“William Laurence, Ex-Science Writer for the Times, Dies.” The New York Times (1997). Web. 24. Oct. 2017.

“World Events.” Living History Farm. Web. 22 Oct. 2017.

“Wolverton, Mark. “World Events During the 1940s.” Undark  9 Aug. 2017. Web. 22 Oct. 2017



JetBlue Airlines Crisis


Photo Credit: Flickr/Jose Mendez

In 2007, after an ice storm, one thousand flights from JetBlue had been canceled, leaving traveler’s furious. Hundreds of flights were canceled in the time-span of only five days, leaving hundreds of passengers stranded. Some passengers were even stuck on the airplane for over ten hours. These passengers were unsure of how technical problems were taking so long to handle with such an urgent crisis. People were blowing up about this issue all over media, causing a major downfall for the JetBlue reputation after hundreds of delays and cancellations were made.

The winter storm caused quite the problem for JetBlue. They did not plan on the delays and cancellations to last five days. On the third day, 71 of the 570 flights had been completely canceled as the airline company failed to find enough planes and crews to help send out flights while meeting regulation.

This situation turned into a political crisis. Thankfully, the public relations for this matter handled the situation excellently.

Courageously, the company’s CEO owned up to the problem about the technical airline issues, and did not once blame the weather for causing the delays. Playing the “blame game” is not a well-liked method to most consumers. Instead of blaming the weather, JetBlue Airlines took the criticism and owned up to their mistakes. JetBlue did receive an abundant amount of complaints and resentment, but were as straightforward and honest as possible with their customers and media.

I believe that JetBlue did the right thing, ethically, by being completely honest and straightforward about the issue. Honesty builds trust with consumers, which is what the company intended to do. It was a public success to not use the “blame game” and blame the weather for all of the problems. JetBlue was honest and took all of the blame for all of the delays and cancellations. This is exactly how I would have handled the situation.

The Inside Scoop of Communication

Chet Piotrowski is an alum from Eastern Illinois University. He majored in Communication, focusing in journalism. Chet is now a visual photographer, does his own online marketing, and does stories and photography for his local newspaper. What’s even more inspiring is that he owns his own photography studio, Piotrowski Studios. I was able to connect with Chet as we share the same hairstylist, and we conducted the interview via FaceTime. I see Chet marketing his business and work through social media on almost a daily basis, which is a crucial step for promotion.


Image Credit: Flickr;Suleyman

Whenever I asked Chet what brand of camera he used, this was his response: “Nikon. I have to use caution though. The camera is just a tool. To give you a metaphor, we’re all capable of digging a hole. A shovel can do it for you. But a backhoe can do it more efficiently – the comparison being an all manual camera versus one like I use with all the bells and whistles. It’s not the camera that makes the image, but the vision behind creating the image. The camera is the tool where you produce your vision.”

To get the inside scoop about the realities of a working communication major, keep reading the interview below:

Q1: What is a typical work week like for you?

A: “I am my own business owner. A typical work week for me includes answer phone calls with questions about my pricing, how I do things, and my style with Piotrowski Studios. The newspaper is also one of my clients. In a scene of a fire, I have to approach people. I have a widespread of clients. Working for the newspaper business does not exactly adhere to the public relations mindset. I just report the facts and present them as best as possible.”

As a communication major, it is evident that it is a field of study. Chet works with nearly all areas within communication. As a journalist and photographer, his consistency is inspiring. 

Q2: Tell me about a project that you worked on that you are especially proud of. 

A: “Right now, I am currently working on a book for the St. Anthony basketball team and celebration. I have been wanting to write a book for about 15-20 years, and I did not find a topic that would have a far reaching impact. Effingham has a huge St. Anthony crowd, and I knew I would have a different viewpoint, and a lot of people in the community would respect this work. I am about to set it off for print and will have it by July.”

St. Anthony is a Catholic School in Effingham, Illinois. 

Q3: What do you do to keep current in this industry?

A: “Continuing education is important and crucial. I know a photographer that went to art school and she thought she did not need to go back. Continuing your education is important with any career, but especially in communication and in the arts because there are so many new ways to communicate. Social media is the new avenue to communicate to clients about what we are doing and how we are doing it. You have to learn now to market.”

Communication is constantly changing, and it is changing quickly. Taking classes here and there after you graduate may not be such a bad idea, just to keep up in the industry. 

Q4: What do you wish you would have known before starting your career?

A: “Oh jeez. I think that college does not prepare you for the real world experiences. It provides you with structure, but it does not provide you with what you with what to do if if a situation arises. You have to know how to set prices and how to effectively communicate with people, especially if they think your work or product is too expensive.”

This is some very valuable advice to keep in mind. Since college may not always provide what actions to take in a real-life scenario, finding an internship or job shadowing could provide these experiences and lessons that college classes do not provide. 

Q5: How is writing important in your career?

A: “I wouldn’t say writing specifically- but knowing how to write. As a journalist, you need to learn how to effectively communicate to potential clients with a wide range of fashion. A website will be completely different from a press release. Knowing how to communicate and write just the facts without any emotions attached is different from a press release from a business. Proper punctuation and spelling is crucial. I see a lot of poor spelling, and that is something that has gotten away from society. In the public, you need to carry yourself in a higher standard, and this also goes for social media and press releases. I have seen many mistakes on marketing because they did not take the time to proof read. How you present yourself is a key representation of how people are going to respect you. A well read person, dress accordingly, will typically get more clients.”

The key factor here: PROOF READ, PROOF READ, PROOF READ! Think about this, how likely are YOU going to want to buy a product or trust a business if they misspell words on their marketing or have terrible grammar? 

Q6: What are three tips you would offer someone just starting out in the communication field? 

A: ” My first tip would be to find someone to eat your work and tell the truth on how you need to improve. I am 20 years in my career and I still have the same professor critique my work from EIU. Be open to valuable criticism. The second tip is that you are going to have to put the time in and nothing will be given to you, unless you are a spoon fed baby whose parents have a ton of money. You have to work for your success. Success is not given, it is solely based upon the people who have influenced by career and education, and I use that to improve my work. My third tip is to give back to your community. People are more apt to use businesses that give back to the community. Volunteering, discounting things, and giving things for free are just a few ways to give back. People are more likely to notice what you are trying to do if you give back, opposed to someone, saying, ‘give me me your money!’ Use your voice in the community by giving back to the community.”

Be open to valuable criticism. As a college student, take every bit of advice and criticism that your professors give you, even if it is hard to hear. They are only trying to help you improve. Not only that, keep in touch with them as Chet did, and it can have a lifelong impact on your career. Work hard. You are the destine to your own success. Always give back. Without the community, you would not exactly have a job, so find ways to give back as often as you can. You need them and they need you.

After hearing everything Chet has said about this communication field, it has only made me more excited to graduate and to start working. I always knew that it was a competitive field and hard work is crucial. After I graduate, I would love to find a way to continue giving back to the community through fundraising and volunteering with Special Olympics. I would also love to work for a business that gives back to their local community whether it may be raising money for local animal or homeless shelters, or actually volunteering with them. I think I would like to take a class or two every year just to keep up with the constantly changing communication force. 

Q7: Has the field changed much since you started? 

A: “Oh yes. Where do I begin? I started in ’97 and around the year 2000, the technology bubble exploded and everyone had either a camera or a website. The ability to communicate with people went from from paper, to emailing, blogs, and text messages. A lot of us who were skilled in one verse of communicating lost our jobs. Artists lost their jobs. Journalism will not die, it will just redefine communication. Right now, Effingham Daily News does not have a full time photographer. New York Times even got rid of their public editor. Journalism and how we communicate news and sports is going under a drastic revolution. As a photographer, many of us have the credentials and education, but yet so many people can go out and purchase a camera and think that they can be a photographer without the education, without the proper gear, and without experience. Because of this, I have to make my public relations and marketing differentiate from these people.”

Since the field has drastically changed, and will continue to change, continuing your education would be beneficial. 

Q8: How has technology effected your daily work?

A: “When I first begun my career, I was shooting film and would do this at sports games. I would use two rolls of film, so 72 shots a game, and now I am doing 1,000 shots a game, all because of technology. Technology has taken away the cost of film and chemicals. The cost of product (film and chemicals) has gone to the cost of labor. The time frame to get the images to your clients has become very short. I can go to an event, photograph the event, and then have the photographs to my clients in seconds. I can shoot gymnastics and have the photo online in 30 seconds. At an Effingham football game, I sent a picture from my camera, to my phone, and was able to post the photo within five minutes. With film, that would have taken 25-30 minutes.”

Technology has made the ability to access anything within minutes or even seconds. 

Q9: Are you involved with an organizations? 

A: “I am. I have volunteered with Big Brother Big Sister. I am also a member of the Professional Photographers of America. I am the co-chair of the Downtown Effingham Business Group to provide sustainability and opportunity for shoppers to use or for our businesses to use, and the make the downtown area thrive.

FUN FACT: One terrific way Chet gives back to the community is that each year he will give one couple a free wedding photography. He chooses a couple that he feels is very deserving of this and feels that life has not given them a fair break. 

Piotrowski Studio Website

Check out Piotrowski Studio on Facebook






PRSSA – Info. & Benefits of Joining

Public Relations Student Society of America

PRSSA Photo Retrieved from Flickr – DePaul PRSSA

About: PRSSA is a society for college students that are in the communication or public relations field of study. There are currently over 300 chapters, with over 10,000 students in the organization. The organization has been around for nearly fifty years, helping students strive to be outstanding and the most professional in public relations. The cost to join the chapter is $60 each year. The parent organization of PRSSA is PRSA, Public Relations Society of America.

PRSSA is beneficial for students as they guide their members towards internships, competitions, awards, and leadership opportunities.  They are mentored to become professionals that employers are seeking to hire. Professionals are commonly able to connect with students involved with PRSSA because they too were members in during their college years.

Benefits: Individual scholarships are provided within PRSSA as well as awards, and leadership recognition.

PRSSA allows members across the country to connect with each other. There are 110 chapters.

PRSSA informs students on public relations and news updates, and keeps them updated on the most current trends within the industry. PRSSA is commonly used for networking students towards career goals and mentors. Chapters of PRSSA are sponsored and this allows the members to get a “real-life” insight on actual business meetings. This allows the students to also meet professionals within their industry, which could allow them to land a career following graduation.

PRSSA has a goal to help mold students into professionals of the communication and public relations industry.

Their mission is, “To provide exceptional service to our members by enhancing their education, broadening their professional network and helping launch their careers after graduation.” As PRSSA gives their members opportunities that most students would not be introduced to, they get a more professional edge in PR. Members are taught to be honest and fair, and are constantly enhancing their communication knowledge.


All information retreieved from http://prssa.prsa.org/about-prssa/

“5 Star” Steps to the Perfect Public Relations Campaign


Have you ever wondered what some of the m4686196974_fff891d2f6_nost effective precautions were to an outstanding pubic relations campaign? If so, here are five tips and tricks to whenever it comes to planning a memorable and honest public relations campaign. First thing’s first – find your objective. Once you have achieved that, you are ready to to follow these five steps.

Tip 1: According to findtheedge, you should always make sure that you are being “SMART.” Figure out the answers to SMART before you begin your campaign. This will help the process to run more smoothly.

Specific – What do you want to achieve?

Measurable – How will you measure it?

Achievable – How will you achieve it within your budget?

Realistic – Is what you want to achieve realistic within your resources? 

Timed – What time frame will you use? 


Tip 2: Focus on your targeted audience. Every decision that is made should be made in regards of  the audience you are targeting. It is important to learn the desires and needs that your audience has so that you will be able to address and fulfill them throughout the process. Communication is key – and communicating with your target audience/potential consumers is essential. Communication with them can be achieved through newspapers or via social media. After all, if your audience is not satisfied, your public relations campaign will more than likely fail.

Tip 3: Personal Branding – it works. In a highly competitive field with multiple businesses that offer the same services, it is crucial to stand out among your competitors. Promote the side of your business that stands out and is unique, an attribute that your competitors do not have. Be loyal to your brand, and allow consumers to be educated on your brand (this will help them to be more attracted to your business). Your public relations campaign will have an edge over the others if aspects of your business is incorporated.
Tip 4: Create a strategy with a schedule. Whenever planning a public relations campaign, it is important to have a set and organized timeline. This will allow you to have a planned out strategy to follow. Having a schedule will ensure that all press releases and social media postings are posted on time. Not only that, you will be able to come up with ideas in advance and put them out immediately.

Tip 5: Send press releases to more than one source. Always have multiple sources to send your press release to. There will always be a possibility that one source may not use your press release in their news. By having multiple different sources that you send your press releases and announcements to, will help secure that your information gets out to the public.

I hope that these 5 tips and tricks to a successful public relations campaign were helpful!

All tips and tricks were retrieved from http://www.findtheedge.com/marketing/9-steps-to-a-successful-pr-campaign 

Image Credit: Flickr, Creo Guetemala